https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OR8EQ0DWpPw Solar orientation zenith azimuth
Fresnel lens Edit
https://www.gonewgen.com/ focuses via fresnel on photo cell.
Solar tracking Edit
http://susdesign.com/sunangle/index.php Sun angle online calculation
- http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:53321 dual axis tracker thingiverse
- http://susdesign.com/sunangle/index.php Sunangle software
http://www.heliotrack.com/Solar-Ethanol.html A closer view shows that this hydro-thermal / photo-voltaic collector is nothing more than a ten gallon aquarium with a small solar panel submerged in the water in front of the black plate heating element. The solar cell is encapsulated in clear epoxy so it is waterproof. The surrounding water keeps the solar panel from exceeding 160°F. What we don't know is how long the solar panel will hold up under nine times concentrated solar power or '9X CSP'. The solar panel is powering a small gearmotor as a load test to simulate a recirculation pump. http://www.heliotrack.com/Applications.html
http://www.heliowatcher.com/ carjack for zenith
- http://www.gearseds.com/files/solar_tracker_const_guide_rev4_all3units.pdf azimuth , zenith control
- Barsoum, Nader and Vasant, Pandian. 2010. Simplified Solar Tracking Prototype. Global Journal of Technology and Optimization (GJTO). 1: pp. 38-45. espace.library curtin edu
- https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2011/806518/ pinhole tracking 1/10 degree accuracy but sensor costs $400.
- http://www.ijetae.com/files/Volume2Issue9/IJETAE_0912_12.pdf Calculation of Sun Position and Tracking the Path of Sun for a
- https://www.nrel.gov/csp/solarpaces/project_detail.cfm/projectID=19 This page provides information on Archimede, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, participants, and power plant configuration. Archimede is a parabolic trough plant operating in Sicily, Italy. The plant produces steam (4.72-MW equivalent) sent to a combined-cycle steam turbine rated at 130 MW. This parabolic trough system is the first using molten salt as the heat-transfer fluid. A 2-tank direct system will provide 8 hours of thermal storage.
- http://www.academia.edu/9771442/A_research_on_parabolic_trough_solar_collector_system_control_based_on_hedge_algebra explains zenith, azimuth calculations for heliostat tracking
http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/9/5/3875 open access journal , tracking devices review.
http://solarenergyengineering.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/journal.aspx The Journal of Solar Energy Engineering The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun’s position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems. View Full-Text
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2011/806518/ Pointing Sensors and Sun Tracking Techniques The Pinhole Sensor works as a pinhole camera without lenses. Figure 4 shows the main elements composing the Pinhole Sensor: pinhole and four-quadrant detector (4-detector).
http://www.ijcaonline.org/archives/volume31/number9/3965-5325 This paper presents the hardware design and implementation of a system that ensures a perpendicular profile of the solar panel with the sun in order to extract maximum energy falling on it. Renewable energy is rapidly gaining importance as an energy resource as fossil fuel prices fluctuate. The unique feature of the proposed system is that instead of taking the earth as its reference, it takes the sun as a guiding source. Its active sensors constantly monitor the sunlight and rotate the panel towards the direction where the intensity of sunlight is maximum. The light dependent resistor’s do the job of sensing the change in the position of the sun which is dealt by the respective change in the solar panel’s position by switching on and off the geared motor. The control circuit does the job of fetching the input from the sensor and gives command to the motor to run in order to tackle the change in the position of the sun. With the implementation of the proposed system the additional energy generated is around 25% to 30% with very less consumption by the system itself. In this paper, an improvement in the hardware design of the existing solar energy collector system has been implemented in order to provide higher efficiency at lower cost.
http://folk.ntnu.no/skoge/prost/proceedings/afcon03/Papers/ google "naidoo ntnu.no intelligent control solar tracking "
Solar e-books on Piratebay Edit
1] Joe - Air Jiang, Tsong - Liang Huang , Ying - Tung Hsiao and Chia - Hong Chen ,‖ Maximum Power Tracking for Photovoltaic Power Systems ‖ , Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 8, No 2, pp. 147_153 ( 2005 ) .
 Nur Muhamed, Tarequl Karim, ―The design and implementation of hybrid automatic solar tracking system‖ , international journal of electrical and power engineering , international journal of electrical and power engineering, 6(3):111 - 117,2012 .
 Nabil A. Ahmed, Masafumi Miyatake,‖ A novel maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic applications under partially shaded insolation conditions‖, Electric Power Systems Research 78 (2008) 777 – 784 .
 Mostefa Ghassoul ,‖ Design of an Automatic Solar Tracking System to Maximize Energy Extraction‖, Intern ational Journal of Emerging Tec hnology and Advanced Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013 .
 Prof. Pooja K. Chhatwani, Prof. Jayashree S. Somani, ‖ Intelligent Solar Tracker System Implemented On 8051 Microcontroller ‖ , International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 4 Issue 9 - Sep 2013 .
 M .Lokanadham, K.Vijaya Bhaskar, ― Incremental Conductance Based Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for Photovoltaic System ‖ , International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), Vol. 2, Issue 2,Mar - Apr 2012, pp.1420 - 1424 .
 J. Celani, Solar Battery Charger Main tains ― High Efficiency in Low Light ‖ , LT Journal of Analog Innovation, October 2013
 Yoash Levron and Doron Shmilovitz , Member, ― Maximum Power Point Tracking Employing Sliding Mode Control ‖ , IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS — I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 60, NO. 3, MARCH 2013 .
 Udayan Umapathi, Gautam Das G, ‖ Simple Techniques To Improve Solar Panel Efficiency Using A Microcontroller Or Soc ‖ , Low Power Design, July 2011 .
Dual Axis Light Sensor for Tracking Sun Shibata, Toyokazu